Describing Wine ...
verbal expresion of the sensory experience...
In the beginning, man tasted wine and said, "Awesome!" It is an easy and natural inclination to make such general judgments about the quality or appeal of a sensory experience; it is much more challenging to describe smells and flavors in a way that can evoke the sensory empathy of fellow beings or, more importantly, to have the practical result of making certain the server or sales person knows which wine will likely result in your customer satisfaction.
According to one theory, human taste evolved in part to defend us against plant poisons, which are mostly bitter. Once determined to be non-toxic, we advance to a more relaxed appreciation of the sensations. Words such as "delicious, tasty, nummy, awful, or yuck" may convey levels of enjoyment, but fail to describe the individual elements that together provide such overall sensory experience and account for such judgments.
Some tastes are innate; sweet is nearly universally prefered over bitter. Others may be acquired or nurtured by culture. Infants often show preference for foods, such as garlic or vanilla, they first experienced through traces left in amniotic fluid or breast milk.
make-up of wine includes many trace elements that contribute to the
combination of smells. Some of these same elements are also
found, although frequently in higher concentrations, in other familiar foods, spices,
flowers, etc. Consenquently, wine smells may often bring to mind these
other familiar things, albeit with more subtlety and much less obvious
or instant recognizability. With training, concentration, and practice,
nearly anyone can learn to recognize and describe these elements of
While there may be a vast array of aroma categories, generally only
four tastes have historically been considered: bitter, salty, sour,
these four only differentiate and describe taste sensations common to Western culture.
the beginning of the 1900s, Japanese scientist Kikunae Ikeda identified
one element that causes a taste in meat, milk, mushrooms, and seaweed
broth as the amino acid glutamate and called the sensation
"umami." Rather than a specific taste, umami
is best described as a distinctive quality or completeness of flavor.
The nearest English equivalent would be "savory" or "delicious." Oriental
food often gets umami, its "complete" flavor, by the addition of monosodium
glutamate (MSG); recent research has discovered receptors to amino acids cause this sensation. Wines typically contain small amounts of amino acids, so some may trigger the umami taste.
Bitter tastes come from alkaloids, such as contained in coffee and
quinine (tonic water). Bitterness in wine can come from tannins leeched from stems or pips soemtimes included in the fermentation, or from unripe grapes.
Salty tastes, by far the most common in prepared
foods, come from sodium chloride (table salt), sodium nitrite (especially
in smoked meats or fish), sodium bicarbonate (especially in baked
goods, canned foods), and sodium benzoate (especially in soft drinks
and packaged beverages, jellies and preserves, margarine and fast-food
burgers). A salty taste in wine is quite rare.
Sour tastes come from acids (citric in oranges,
grapefruit, etc., malic in apples, pears, lactic in dairy products). Nearly all wines have some degree of tartness derived from acidity.
Sweet comes from sugars, primarily sucrose in
the American diet, although there are many others (fructose, glucose,
lactose, etc.). Wine sweetness ranges from candy-like to imperceptible (dry) and the actual amount of residual sugar is greatly controlled by the winemaking choices.
Various combinations of basic tastes, along with the accompanying variety of
aromas, account for different flavors.
Taste and smell
have historically been the least understood sensory mechanisms.
Taste compounds have smaller
molecules than those of odors and, unlike odors, must be water-soluble (hydrophyllic) to cause sensation.
Taste is a very speedy sense in terms of detection, twice as fast as touch, nearly ten times faster than vision, and curiously, since they form such an intimate team, almost a hundred times faster than smell. Might this partially explain why humans are able to identify more flavors than they can odorants?
Tastes are sensed by nerve receptors
called buds and there are about 9,000 of them on the average
tongue. Misinterpretations of research conducted in the late 1800s, led to
"tongue maps" that suggested that the basic tastes are sensed primarily
by specific areas, such as the tip or center. This localization has been disproven.
Although taste buds were noted to be of different sizes and shapes, depending upon their location, subsequent investigation
proved that each of them contain the same kinds of taste receptor cells (papillae) that supply all the sensations of taste. The entire top surface of the tongue can sense
all of the various tastes.
is also great variation between individuals in their sensitivity to specific smells and tastes. While the tongue and mouth is limited to sensing combinations of four or five basic tastes, along with sensations of texture, temperature, and viscosity, science
has proven the human nose can detect and distinguish between thousands
of different smells, depending upon individual aptitude and training.
When it comes to smells, humans generally have a great ability to detect and discriminate between odors, but great difficulty in describing those odors. This is probably due to the fact that different areas of the human brain process smells and words; odorant detection occurs in the right brain, while language operates in the left. This right-brain versus left-brain disconnect has a double-whammy: it is as difficult to describe smells as it is to imagine descriptions as smells, such as in tasting notes1.
Reaction to certain smells may be instinctive; identification of those smells requires a certain amount of experience and concentration. Training involves isolating and demonstrating individual particular smells, especially those associated with wines. Studies have shown that, regardless of individual sensitivity, odor memory is improved by labelling aromas specifically, rather than merely categorizing them broadly2.
Ability, Sensitivity, Preference and Cultural Influence
While nearly all humans are born with organs of smell and taste that generally function similarly from one to the next, individuals vary somewhat in their physiology and body chemistry, therefore also their
ability to percieve different aroma and taste components. Three friends sampling the same ice cream flavor at Baskin-Robbins might each objectively describe it differently as: "not very sweet", "sweet", or "very sweet".
The level at which an individual first begins to percieve a particular sensory stimulus is called their threshold. These thresholds can be measured for several wine components, such as sugar and various types of acidity, to determine relative sensitivity.
Another influence on taste besides individual ability is individual psychology and preference. Asked to rate, rather than describe the ice cream sweetness, the very same friends might respectively judge it "just right", "too sweet", or "not sweet enough". Culture
and upbringing provide sensory experiences that certainly influence
adult taste preferences.
Americans raised in the last half
of the 20th Century typically drank milk, or increasingly soft drinks,
sweet and sometimes carbonated, as mealtime beverages. The longtime
adage of wine marketers has been that "Americans talk dry but drink sweet". Each culture has a similar taste bias.
Coca-Cola employs 200 global research and development staff, two dozen
of them specialists in flavor development to pinpoint local taste
preferences and adjust their product formula to local conformity.
They have found that Germans like spicy, Mexicans like citric and
Italians want a little bitterness. These cultural flavor preferences
may also dictate wine choices to some degree.
Asians generally enjoy and add "hot", such as the taste of chili peppers (derived from their capsaicinoid content), to their list of basic tastes, although this burn is a chemesthetic reaction rather than a taste.
Chemesthetic sensations of pain, pressure and temperature may sensed over the entire body surface, affecting both skin and mucous membranes, such as the lining of the mouth and even the eyes (commonly experienced when cutting onion). Other examples are the "cool" sensation produced by menthol and mint and, more appropriate to wine, the tingling of carbonation.
Alcohol also is mainly experienced
as an irritation of this sense. When the proportion is too high
for the other flavor elements, alcohol may give a "burning" sensation
in the nose as well as a "hot" feeling in the back of the throat or
the roof of the mouth. The astringent pucker of tannin is the next most common chemesthetic sensation in wine.
Touch also contributes to flavor, sensing temperature and pressure (viscosity and carbonation, for example). The phenomenon of varying individual sensitivity also applies to chemesthesis, touch, and pressure.
Taste is personal, born of ability, raised by experience, educated by curiosity, based on pleasure and enjoyment, and should remain relatively free and independent, but also respectful of other tasters' judgments.
Communication and Memory
specific smells and flavors of wine is not important to the average
consumer; most decide that a wine simply tastes good or not. Critics
and judges, however, need to learn and apply standards of terminology.
Consumers can enhance their tasting experience by learning these terms
in order to communicate better with their fellow tasters, and perhaps most importantly, to develop a memory of their
likes and dislikes. It could also improve their wine shopping experience by refining communication with their merchant.
Many of the smells and flavors in
wine are described in terms of other fruits. Several odoriferous molecules
are shared by wine and other fruits, such as apples, pears, currants, raspberries,
oranges, or bananas. These include acetic and butyric acids, the alcohols
propanol, terpinol and hexanol, the carbonyls ethanal, acetone and
diacetyl, and the esters isoamyle acetate, ethyl caproate, and ethyl
butyrate. Different combinations and amounts of these and other compounds
give fruits their distinct aromas and flavors and provide wine with great variety and complexity.
Until her retirement in 2003, from the University of California at Davis, Dr. Ann Noble led wine research
on smells and flavors. She began to develop her theories on aromas
specifically recognizable in wine in the 1980s and her colleagues
continue this research today. Dr. Noble headed a project to develop
an inexpensive and easy tool to aid in learning wine flavor terminology.
The Aroma Wheel is a kind of pie-chart that lists, categorizes and
groups hundreds of smells and odors that may be present specifically
in wines. Each of these specific aromas is grouped into one of nine
major general categories: floral, fruity, vegetative, nutty, woody,
caramelized, earthy, spicy, or chemical. Dr. Noble's Aroma
Wheel website explains how to get one and use it train your "nose
and brain to connect and quickly link terms with odors...using materials
available from the grocery store."
1. Human difficulty to verbalize the sensory experience of wine tasting was the subject of PHD Frédé́ric Brochet's doctoral thesis, Chemical Object Representation in the Field of Consciousness (PDF) in 2001. RETURN
2. Odor Memory: Review and Analysis by Rachel S Herz and Trygg Engen in the Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 1996. RETURN
Professional Friends of Wine also has a Sensory Users' Manual in the Wine 101 section.
and educator Glen Green publishes the Essential
Wine Tasting Guide, a handy wallet-or-purse-size reference
that helps tasters with those "what IS that smell" questions
when the answer is stuck just on the tip of the tongue.
Tim Hanni, professional chef, Certified Wine Educator, and one of the first Americans to earn Master of Wine, has surveyed and studied taste for more than three decades, leading him to develop the theory of "Vinotype" taste preferences. On My Vinotype there is a short survey that produces participants' most likely general taste preferences and specific wine suggestions that may suit them.